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Moral Indifference

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I’ve often wondered why people don’t seem to care about the things they hear and see in the news. Nobody seems to be all that interested in questions dealing what’s right and what’s wrong or why we’re here.   Hockey,  the Academy Awards and American Idol all seem to be more important and worth talking about.

A few days ago I came across a disturbing article in the National Post. The article reported that a woman in Calgary was hit by two cars and dragged along the road. Only one person came to her aid as she lay dying;”Calgary was stunned when 56-year-old Wong Shuk Yee was struck by a car in the northwest Calgary suburbs on Wednesday. The driver drove off, the following two cars swerved around her body and continued on, and then Ms. Wong was hit by a second car that dragged her a short ways and then also continued on. Ms. Yee died at the scene, comforted only by Tonja Beach, a mother of four who lived nearby. No other cars pulled over . . .”

How does this happen?  The reporter who interviewed  Ms. Beach, mentioned the ‘bystander syndrome’; “where if somebody sees something bad happening to a human being in a crowd, they’re actually less likely to call for help because they assume someone else is taking care of it. Do you think that could have happened?”  Ms. Beach replied; “I don’t know.  . . .  People just don’t care anymore. They’re too busy in their own lives to worry about anybody else. They just don’t want to get involved.”  Bystander Syndrome  adds up to a much bigger problem when we consider how it works its way into society.

Moral indifference is bystander syndrome taken to its logical conclusion in a society.  Somehow we have all become ‘bystanders’ in a culture that pushes entertainment over education, consumption over creativity and opinion over conviction.  It’s not that any person makes a conscious decision to allow bad things to happen and evil to go unchecked.  Rather people don’t want to ‘get involved’.  It’s not that people don’t figure what’s right or wrong. Rather people prefer to keep their conclusions to themselves thereby avoiding the risk of their actions and attitudes being called into question.  We still know right from wrong but these concepts figure less and less into our daily calculations.  Taking a stand makes you a target – best to keep moving in any direction morally and literally in an uncertain world.

Moral indifference is more the absence of a consistent tendency to do what is right than it is premeditated callousness.  That is what makes it unpredictable on an individual basis.  Individuals are as capable of great acts of selflessness and courage as they are of apathy and cowardice.  However groups tend to default to the lowest common denominator and its members become bystanders or in extreme cases -mobs.  This is what happens when a society chooses to abandon sound teaching like the Parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke 10:25-37).  We leave ourselves open to moral and social confusion in situations  where  a clear need for right action exists.  We reap what we sow (Galatians 6:7).

Christina Hoff Sommers, professor of philosophy at Clark University, and W. H. Brady Fellow at American Enterprise Institute, Washington, D.C. sum up our social dilemma;  “Without a population educated to be civil, considerate, and respectful of one another, what will we end up with? Not much. For as long as philosophers and theologians have written about ethics, they have stressed the moral basics. We live in a moral environment. We must respect and protect it. We must acquaint our children with it. We must make them aware it is precious and fragile.” 

Today, we are living in a world where for several generations children have not been taught Christian values.  Indeed the Bible is being censured in many of our public schools.  Sadly far too many people seem indifferent to the concern about how abandoning our faith and traditions will change our social reality.  But then again nobody expects to get hit by a car while crossing the street.  Why would anybody think that they might fall victim to moral indifference?

When we lose our moral compass!

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Most people would agree that lying to children who trust you is wrong.  What happened to the teachers at Roseland Public School?  The National Post reports; ” A southwestern Ontario school board is speaking out against teachers who pulled an elaborate prank on a group of Grade 8 students in Windsor.  A spokesman for the Greater Essex County School Board says teachers used ‘poor judgment’ when they led students to believe they were going on a graduation trip to Disney World.  Scott Scantlebury says teachers at Roseland Public School prepared a PowerPoint presentation, complete with pictures and video, to lead the kids to believe the trip to Florida was in the works.”Roseland Public

The kids were devastated when they found that they were only going to a bowling alley and the trip to Florida was a hoax.   The teachers who organized this hoax on the entire grade eight class are still employed at the school.  The  conclusion of the matter, “The hope is now that we can put this behind us and learn from a very hard mistake.” begs the question ‘what has been learned’?

The kids have learned that you can lie and get away with it if you have an official position and the appropriate apologies are made.  The teachers learned that  you can lie and get away with it.  The article points out that;  “. . . the board is not investigating the matter further and declined to discuss whether disciplinary actions were being taken against the teachers involved.  The two staff members directly involved in the prank are still employed at Roseland, . . . .”  The public has learned that once again our important social institutions blunder along without a moral compass and only the innocent pay the price.

As more public school boards in Ontario ban the Bible   I wonder;  What will it take for people to see this as the big mistake that it is?  Perhaps if the teachers were familiar with the ninth commandment they would have been able to figure out that perpetrating this hoax was not only a bad idea but morally wrong!

Just too much!

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Mark 5:17 Then the people began to plead with Jesus to leave their region.

     The people of the Gerasenes region had seen too much of Jesus. He drove the demons infesting an ‘incurable’ man into a heard of pigs.  The pigs then ran into the sea and drowned. Jesus not only saved a man’s life that couldn’t be saved but was also responsible for the loss of valuable livestock. He was scary! He was trouble!

     Good news and deliverance isn’t always welcomed with joy. Sometimes people see the miraculous as disturbing because it upsets their view of the world. When I was healed of heart disease, some people said I was misdiagnosed. In a way, they were asking Jesus to leave their region. It didn’t matter what my deeply held beliefs were. It didn’t matter what my experience was; prior to my healing the continual pain and lack of energy. And after my healing – no more pain and lots of energy!  What mattered was that people don’t get healed by supernatural means. If we allow God to work His way we won’t be able to say we’re in charge of our own fate! 

     The people put up with the demon possessed man.  They counldn’t control him so they got used to him; “For he had often been chained hand and foot, but he tore the chains apart and broke the irons on his feet. No one was strong enough to subdue him. Night and day among the tombs and in the hills he would cry out and cut himself with stones.” (Mark 5:4,5) We grow accustomed to that we cannot control, allowing it to roam about freely on the periphery of our consciousness as long as it makes no demands upon us beyond setting a border which we tacitly agree not to cross.  What is to be more feared – the bars on your cell door or the Person who has the power to throw it open and invite you to step beyond your self-contained world?

     Fear constrains but it doesn’t demand inner change!  We are accustomed to our world.  Like the people in the Gerasenes we have reached an accommodation with the violence and anxieties of the world.  As long as it stays on the periphery most of the time we can live with those tormented by its demons.  The world hasn’t changed.  

     What do we do when we meet up with His Word?  How do we handle the Gospel’s demand for inner change?  Sadly and all too often we beg His message to leave us.  The world we know for all its fearfulness and trouble is statistically bearable.  Chances are we will escape its ravages.  For many this is preferable to certain innner change!  Sadly the demons of yesterday and today have a reach far beyond those unfortunate ones they immediately possess.

     The call of the Gospel is for inner change; “Do not conform<sup class="crossreference" value="(C)”> any longer to the pattern of this world,<sup class="crossreference" value="(D)”> but be transformed by the renewing of your mind.” (Romans 12:2)  Jesus demands that we leave our inner prisons through the door that He has opened wide; “If anyone would come after me, he must deny himself and take up his cross and follow me.”  (Matthew 16:24) 

     Change we must.

    Praise the Lord!

The Cross in Our Context – Chapter One impressions

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Professor Hall separates the ‘theology of the cross’ from the ‘theology of glory’. Quoting Martin Luther; “A theology of glory calls evil good and good evil. A theology of the cross calls the thing what it actually is.” (p. 16) Hall pulls apart what I’m not certain that Luther seperates and sure that Holy Scripture doesn’t separate. Paul did not separate the two; “Therefore I endure everything for the sake of the elect, that they too may obtain the salvation that is in Christ Jesus, with eternal glory.” (2 Timothy 2:10) And; “For if the dead rise not, then is not Christ raised: And if Christ be not raised, your faith is vain; ye are yet in your sins.” (1 Corinthians 15:16,17)

Hall defines ‘theology of glory’ as ‘triumphalism’; “Triumphalism refers to the tendency in all strongly held world views, whether religious or secular, to present themselves as full and complete accounts of reality, leaving little or any room for debate or differences of opinion and expecting of their adherents unflinching belief and loyalty.” (p. 17) Praise the Lord. The Bible tells us we have victory in Jesus; “The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. But thanks be to God! He gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.” (1 Corinthians 15:56,57)

The Bible tells us plainly that Jesus is victory and glory and triumphant all wrapped up into one; “Therefore God exalted him to the highest place and gave him the name that is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue acknowledge that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.” (Philippians 2:9-11) To a Christian this is a good thing. To Professor Hall this is a bad thing. So bad in fact that an antidote is needed; “The only antidote to religious triumphalism is the readiness of communities of faith to permit doubt and self-criticism to play a vital role in the life of faith.” (p. 18)

‘To permit doubt … to play a vital role in the life of faith’ – what does that mean? Professor Halls ‘antidote’ will kill faith as defined by God’s Word; “Now faith is confidence in what we hope for and assurance about what we do not see.  This is what the ancients were commended for. By faith we understand that the universe was formed at God’s command, so that what is seen was not made out of what was visible.” (Hebrews 11:1,2,3) The Bible tells us that the journey of faith is a hard one but worthwhile; “They went about in sheepskins and goatskins, destitute, persecuted and mistreated— the world was not worthy of them. They wandered in deserts and mountains, living in caves and in holes in the ground. These were all commended for their faith, yet none of them received what had been promised, since God had planned something better for us so that only together with us would they be made perfect.” (Hebrews 11:37-40)

God wants our ‘perfection’ through Jesus even though the way is hard and always involves giving up your self – something a friend would never ask. Professor Hall seems to know better than the Bible; “The theologia gloria confuses and distorts because it presents divine revelation in a straightforward, undialectical, and authoritarian manner . . . . It overwhelms the human with its brilliance, its incontestability, its certitude. Yet just in this it confuses and distorts, because God’s object in the divine self-manisfestation is precisely not to overwhelm but to befriend.” (p. 20)  This is just not so.  God wants to save us so much so that He sent His only Son to die for our sins (John 3:16).  God wants more than just our friendship He wants to be our Father; “The Spirit you received does not make you slaves, so that you live in fear again; rather, the Spirit you received brought about your adoption to sonship. And by him we cry, ‘Abba, Father.’ ”  This is more than casual ‘take it our leave it’ friendship.  This is ‘for keeps’! This is for eternity not causal friendship!

God told us to listen to Jesus; “This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased. Listen to him!” (Matthew 17:5) The theology of the cross is the theology of glory; ” ‘Now is the judgment of this world: now shall the prince of this world be cast out. And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me.’ This he said, signifying what death he should die.” (John 12:31-33)

Stubborn hearts and a withered hand

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Mark 3:5,6 He looked around at them in anger and, deeply distressed at their stubborn hearts, said to the man, “Stretch out your hand.” He stretched it out, and his hand was completely restored. Then the Pharisees went out and began to plot with the Herodians how they might kill Jesus.

     Jesus had come to the Synagogue as it was the Sabbath. There among all the prestigious Pharisees was a man with a withered hand. A withered hand would have hindered this man from making a living and supporting his family. Such a man would have been at a great social disadvantage. Yet here this man was in the Synagogue with the Pharisees who were indifferent to his plight. The Pharisees were looking for some reason to accuse Jesus and if He healed this man’s hand on the Sabbath; He would be breaking the law!

      Jesus asked them; “Is it lawful to do good on the sabbath days, or to do evil? to save life, or to kill?” (v. 4) They remained silent, watching, ready to strike – like vicious snakes. Jesus was angry and distressed with their hard attitude. He could have spoken the stubborn hearted Pharisees out of existence with one Word. But He didn’t. He chose to heal instead – to give life rather than take it. His response was to heal the man with the withered hand. First He commanded the man with the withered hand to stretch it out. That must have taken a lot of courage for this cripple to expose and extend his shameful infirmity for healing.

      What was the response of the Pharisees in the face of that miracle? They chose to continue with their stubborn irrational desire to kill Jesus. They slithered away to plot with the Herodians, a political party that supported collaboration with Rome and the status quo. They wanted to kill Jesus and suppress His message of hope by any means. They were friends of Rome’s world and Jesus was a threat to them (John 19:12). A stubborn heart cripples just as much or more so than a withered hand.  The former robs the inner person of their wholeness working its devastation outward towards others.  The latter being external and obvious for all to see works its worst effects inward leaving others out of its direct influence. 

          Earnie Larsen, a workshop leader and author of From Anger to Forgiveness states;“If your heart was broken because you always wanted to be hugged by your mother and father and they were never there, or you experienced actual abuse, you’ve got a valid gripe, . . . But once you understand and acknowledge that, you need to work through the anger and move beyond it to forgiveness and reconciliation. Otherwise, you’re just stuck in a cycle of resentment and bitterness.” It’s a hard thing to stretch out your withered hand and expose your real infirmity. For many years I guarded and hid my withered hand.  Only the desperate work up the courage to do it and only the desperate are delivered.  The stubborn heart calls for ‘justice’ while the withered hand cries out for relief.

       How is it that we are more inclined to anger and bitterness than to stretch out our ‘withered hand’ for healing?   An article on Hazelden’s website called, “Moving from anger to forgiveness” speaks to this question; “The people most likely to hang on to anger are those who come from dysfunctional families–people who didn’t get their feelings validated as children or who were forced to deny their feelings. ‘Anger is the emotional response to perceived injustice,’ Larsen said. ‘It is always a justice issue. It’s thinking or feeling that ‘I don’t count,’ or ‘My thoughts aren’t important.’ ”  Justice may establish fairness and order but it can never lift a person out of their pit or heal a withered hand.

     The first steps out of this pit are acknowledging your infirmities (bitterness, pride, judgement, . . . ) and allowing Jesus’ Holy Spirit to guide you through the healing. “An important part of recovery for alcoholics and adult children of alcoholics involves doing the ‘anger work’ and moving towards forgiveness. The first stage in this process is to understand the incidents that still trigger anger.” (Hazelden)  It is not just alcoholics and adult children of alcoholics who need to do this. Any person who has lived in a situation where for years their feelings were not validated and survival involved denying their feelings need to take that courageous step to stretch out their withered hand, to expose their infirmities so healing can begin

     We can thank God that He doesn’t leave us with only justice.  Justice works on externals leaving the inner landscape just as devastated as it ever was.  The book of Jonah speaks to this.  When God relented from destroying Nineveh because its people listened to His Word, Jonah was angry;  “But to Jonah this seemed very wrong, and he became angry.<sup class="crossreference" value="(A)”>  He prayed to the Lord, ‘Isn’t this what I said, Lord, when I was still at home? That is what I tried to forestall by fleeing to Tarshish. I knew<sup class="crossreference" value="(B)”> that you are a gracious<sup class="crossreference" value="(C)”> and compassionate God, slow to anger and abounding in love,<sup class="crossreference" value="(D)”> a God who relents<sup class="crossreference" value="(E)”> from sending calamity.<sup class="crossreference" value="(F)”> Now, Lord, take away my life,<sup class="crossreference" value="(G)”> for it is better for me to die<sup class="crossreference" value="(H)”> than to live.’ ”<sup class="crossreference" value="(I)”>.  (Jonah 4:1-3) 

      Jonah wanted justice. God wanted redemption;  True healing goes beyond justice to forgiveness and finally peace.  This is the Gospel, the ministry of reconciliation;  “Therefore, if anyone is in Christ,<sup class="crossreference" value="(A)”> the new creation<sup class="crossreference" value="(B)”> has come: The old has gone, the new is here!<sup class="crossreference" value="(C)”>  All this is from God,<sup class="crossreference" value="(D)”> who reconciled us to himself through Christ<sup class="crossreference" value="(E)”> and gave us the ministry of reconciliation:  that God was reconciling the world to himself in Christ, not counting people’s sins against them.<sup class="crossreference" value="(F)”> And he has committed to us the message of reconciliation.” (2 Corinthians 5:17 – 20)<sup class="crossreference" value="(I)”>

     The Gospel message is that Jesus is right here waiting and willing to heal you. That is His mission; “The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery of sight for the blind, to release the oppressed, . . . ” (Luke 4:18)

     Release your anger and bitterness.

     Call out to Him.

     Praise the Lord

Hearing isn’t always listening!

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Mark 4:24,25  “Consider carefully what you hear,” he continued. “With the measure you use, it will be measured to you—and even more.<sup class="crossreference" value="(Q)”>  Those who have will be given more; as for those who do not have, even what they have will be taken from them.”

     I always thought that this scripture was harsh – ‘those who have will be given more and those who don’t will have what little they do have taken away from them’.  Is that how it goes?   It took years of living it to realize that God wasn’t taking from me; my hard heart and dull spiritual senses were the biggest thieves in my life.

     Years ago when I was an undergraduate student I listened to friends talk about their faith and I measured their words against what I little knew about science and philosophy.  My inflated ego caused me to hold my own beliefs and thoughts in the highest regard.  Other ideas and thoughts could never measure up to what I knew.  Life had not yet taught me how limited my understanding was; “Before destruction a man’s heart is haughty, but humility comes before honor.”  (Proverbs 18:12)

     Ageing doesn’t necessarily guarantee wisdom.  We all start early adult life knowing how smart and capable we are.  The over-confidence of youth is the lack of experience that living life should remedy.  Life may be a good teacher but that is only one side of the learning equation.  As a young man my pride convinced me that there was no one as smart and as capable as ‘yours truly’.  I was so full of myself that  I couldn’t wait to share me with others; “A fool does not delight in understanding, But only in revealing his own mind” (Proverbs 18:2).  Sadly, for those around me I remained that way for many, many years.

     It wasn’t success that convinced me otherwise.  Rather it was failure.  Success can puff up.  For me the more I succeeded the more I lost in hearing acuity.  Oh, I became a ‘churchman’ but measured the Gospel against what I knew of worldly success.  Paying lip service to but never really believing the articles of faith that older and wiser saints held on tightly to.    Friendship with the world blinded me; “For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh and the lust of the eyes and the boastful pride of life, is not from the Father, but is from the world.” (1 John 2:16)  My success became a barrier to truly hearing what the Gospel message had to say to me.  In the flesh when sight fails  hearing improves.  Wilful spiritual blindness dulls all the senses.

     When did things started coming apart?   When my ego became more important than my family. When my health started to fail, I began to realize that what I had was being taken from me but I couldn’t figure out why.  God had to lay a terrible vision on me to get my attention.  He brought me to my knees and opened my eyes.  Then I started listening to what He had to say.  The thief in my life was the enemy of my soul and his accomplice was easily seen in my bathroom mirror.  I stopped listening to the devil’s lies about my son and my family.  I started listening to His Word;  “And, ye fathers, provoke not your children to wrath: but bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord.” (Ephesians 6:4)

     I started to trust God with my children.  I started to believe that Jesus would finish the work He started in my son’s life;  ” . . . being confident of this, that he who began a good work in you will carry it on to completion until the day of Christ Jesus.” (Philippians 1:6)  And as I stopped trying to control, criticize and judge,  God rebuilt my life.  My family was restored to me.  Bit by bit lost ground was recovered until now both my son and daughter are my friends.  My wife and  I stand in unity and joy.  As I started to hear God’s Word, to really listen to it and live it my life became abundant with true riches.

     Today, my mind has undergone an epistemological inversion.  I no longer measure God’s Word by my experience.  Rather I measure my experience by God’s Word and bring what I do and know into alignment with His Word.  Does this work?  I have my family back!  Every day Jesus gives me more and now I understand,  ‘Those who have will be given more’, because I finally listened.

     Jesus said; “The thief comes only to steal and kill and destroy; I have come that they may have life, and have it to the full.”  (John 10:10)

     He meant it!

     Praise the Lord!

Ignorance betrays

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Matthew 22:29 “You are in error because you do not know the Scriptures<sup class="crossreference" value="(T)”> or the power of God.”

     The Sadducees who were hoping to confuse Jesus with a ridiculous scenario involving seven unfortunate brothers each marrying his predeceased brother’s childless wife in order to preserve the name  and property of his family.  ‘When this unfortunate widow dies’, they asked, ‘whose wife will she be after her resurrection?’  They wanted to trip Jesus up and make Him say something wrong or get Him off track.  In one short sentence, Jesus exposed them.

     The Sadducees  didn’t believe in the resurrection after death.  Matthew Henry sums up this group and how they fit in with Jesus’ other worldly adversaries: “As the Pharisees and Essenes seemed to follow Plato and Pythagoras, so the Sadducees were much of the genius of the Epicureans; they denied the resurrection, they said, There is no future state, no life after this; that, when the body dies, the soul is annihilated, and dies with it; that there is no state of rewards or punishments in the other world; no judgement to come in heaven or hell. They maintained, that, except God, there is not spirit . . .”
       Today we often hear scripture mocked  by those who try to push it to extreme scenarios hoping to trip up those who have complete faith in God’s Word.  John Wesley writing on this verse succinctly described the blindness of the Sadducees and those like them; “Ye err, not knowing the Scriptures – Which plainly assert a resurrection. Nor the power of God – Which is well able to effect it. How many errors flow from the same source?”  Many errors flow from it – these errors are splitting up the church and destroying our unity.
     Jesus dealt with this kind of intellectual and spiritual treachery head on.  “For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God in heaven.  But as touching the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read that which was spoken unto you by God, saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? God is not the God of the dead, but of the living.”  (Matthew 22:30-32)
    Scriptures of Jesus’ day testified to the resurrection; “And after my skin, even this body, is destroyed,  Then without my flesh shall I see God”  (Job 19:26)  The Power of God was scriptural reality; “Behold, I will open your graves, and cause you to come up out of your graves, O my people . . .” (Ezekiel 33:12)  God Himself testified to being the God of the living (Exodus 3:6).  
      The Sadducees allowed one part of scripture but not another.  Their tactic was to use some parts of scripture to diminish the whole.  They had no fear of God; “Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish [ought] from it, that ye may keep the commandments of the LORD your God which I command you.”  (Deut. 4:2)  The times and tactics of Jesus’ enemy hasn’t changed.  Satan  attacks when you least suspect and will use your own lack of knowledge to betray you.  Had Jesus not known scripture, had He not walked with God on a daily basis, He would have been tripped up and put on the defensive.
     One pastor describes the Sadducees’ trickery in this way; “Their question was based on a human concept and not the Word of God. They wanted to know if a woman married 7 brothers successively, after each died, whose wife would she be after she died. A crazy question to waste time and distract from the more important matters . . . “.  Satan loves to distract because it is the first step to fooling someone and stealing their faith.  Satan still battles for the souls of God’s children and he still does it with mockery and smart sounding arguments.

      This battle has been going on for a long time and it rages today. Many cannot see it. Many more don’t care about it as they are already behind enemy lines. Those that fight against the mockery and lies on the front line are outnumbered and unpopular just as Jesus was and still is.  The battle isn’t over error. The battle is over the souls of those who are captive to lies.  The weapons used by Satan are  error and lies. The weapons used by Jesus and His disciples are Scripture and the power of God.  The battle isn’t about knowing the Scriptures or the power of God. The battle is fought with Scripture and with the power of God. The enemy has taken error and made it into a weapon and uses it against us all. I choose to fight not to defend my beliefs – the Truth needs no defence. I choose to fight to recover lost ground; to reach out to those who are captives behind enemy lines.

     It falls squarely on every Christian to do his own homework and not rely on others.  We can hide in our churches and ignore those outside the cosy walls of the assurance of our own salvation.  We can grow complacent to the plight of others and allow ignorance of scripture to take hold because the press of the battle is so far away.  Yet the Bible tells us plainly; “Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth”. (2 Timothy 2:15)  If you don’t make the effort to know His Word you will find yourself deceived and defenceless against the very attacks Jesus was subjected to because the battle against the Truth is right outside your door.
     Our lives depend on His Word!  The lives of our loved ones and neighbours depend on His Word.  Jesus countered the devil’s attacks with His knowledge of scripture and the Power of God. When Jesus faced His adversary the devil He said; “It is written: ‘Man does not live on bread alone, but on every word that comes from the mouth of God.”  (Matthew 4:4)
         Praise the Lord!

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